Capsicum Oleoresin, Food Additives From Pioneer Herbal Manufacturer, Exporter And Supplier, India, Bombay, Mumbai
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Sal Fat - Shorea Robusta Fat

Sal fat is greenish brown. It has a typical odour. Its fatty acid composition shows C16 (4%), C18 (47%), C18:1 (44%), C18:2 (0.5%) and C20 (2.8%). These values are mean values of some samples. The presence of small amounts of the C20 acid, however does not affect the performance of the sal fat fractions as cocoa butter substitute. A two stage acetone fractionation process gives a sal mid-fraction (45% yield) that is suitable for use in preparing cocoa butter substitute. It can be concluded that Sal fat, largely free from oxidized fatty acid glycerides contains about 69 per cent symmetrical triglycerides. Fats like illipe, kokum, shea

contain substantial proportion of symmetrical triglycerides and hence are valued as confectionery fats.

SAL FAT as component of Cocoa Butter Equivalent : Cocoa butter has a unique chemical and physical properties which endow chocolates with special aesthetic and universally eating qualities. The important attributes like remaining hard and brittle at 30 Deg.C and yet melting fully and completely at 35 Deg.C, the rapid transformation to most stable polymorphic form which helps in tempering, demoulding, and hardening of bars are due to the unique chemical composition comprising about 80 per cent symmetrical triglycerides that is POP, POSt and StOSt.

Sal oil has been used for centuries as a cooking oil substitute. Sal seeds possess a fat content of 12% to 14%. The fat is extracted in a Solvent Extraction Plant in the presence of hexane. The extracted Sal oil is refined using conventional refining methods. Marked by a greenish-brown tinge and a pungent odour, Sal fat has a fatty acid composition of palmitic acid (4%), Stearic acid (47%), Oleic acid (44%), Linoleic acid (0.5%) and Archidic acid (2.8%). Sal fat has come up as a major constituent of confectionery items. Neutralized and Bleached Sal fat (NB SAL FAT) is mainly used as a component for filling. Sal Fat is also used as an alternative to Cocoa Butter as Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) and Cocoa Butter Replacer (CBR). Sal fat is also used as a substitute for Cocoa Butter as Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS) in confectionery. Apart from its uses in confectionery, Sal Fat is also used as a fat substitute for soap making, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and medicines. Processed Sal fat is used in products such as waxes, polishes, cosmetics, paper coatings and multipurpose greases.

Sal Fat as component of Cocoa Butter Equivalent

Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) has been used as an ingredient in preparing chocolates for a long time as it provides all the qualities that are required for preparation of chocolate. Sal Fat is an important component of CBE. Cocoa butter has unique chemical and physical properties which provide chocolates with special qualities like maintaining hardness and staying brittle at 30oC and melting completely at 35oC. Such a unique and rapid transformation is due to the unique chemical composition comprising about 80 per cent symmetrical triglycerides like POP, POS and SOS. Sal Fat manifests in itself all these properties and is thus an ideal ingredient of CBE.
Specification for NB Sal Fat
Physical Properties
S. No



AOCS Method



White colour Solid




Characteristic odour 




Typical taste 



Colour (Lovibond 5-1/4 scale)

Max 4.0 Red

Cc 13b - 45


Specific Gravity  

0.898 to 0.914  

Cc 10b-25


Slip Melting Point

33 - 35 deg C

Cc 3-25


Jenson Cooling Curve


BS: 684:1.13,1991


T max

33.5 º C min



T min

26.0 º C min



T rise

06.5 º C min




60 minutes max



Solid Fat Contents (by NMR)


BS: 684:2.22,1991


Tempered at 26ºC for 40 Hours




20 ºC

66% min



25 ºC

63% min



30 ºC

56% min



35 ºC

12% min



Moisture & Volaitle Matter

0.5% Max

Ca 2c-25


Stearic                         C18:0

50 - 65



Oleic                           C18:1

30 - 44



Linoleic                        C18:2

  0 - 8



Aracid                         C20:0

  0 - 5


Chemical Properties
S. No



AOCS Method


Free Fatty Acid as Oleic

0.5 % max

Ca 5a-40


Peroxide value (meq / kg)

4.0 Max

Ja 8-87


Iodine Value

35 - 41

Cd 1c-85


Saponification Value

187 - 193

Tl 1a-64


Unsaponifable Matter

1.2% Max

Ca 6a-40


Fatty Acid Composition in %:

(Only for Major Components)



Palmitic (C16:0)

  2 - 8



Margar (C17:0)

  0 - 5



Stearic (C18:0)

45 - 60



Oleic (C18:1)

35 - 50



Linoleic (C18:2)

  0 - 8



Aracid (C20:0)

  0 - 5



Chemical & Pesticides





<0.05 ppm




<0.01 ppm




<0.01 ppm




<0.01 ppm


Microbiological Characteristics
S. No Micro-organism Maximum AOCS Method

Aerobic Plate Count

1000 cfu per gm

AOAC  990.12


Yeast & Mold

50 cfu  / gm

BAM 19.01-19.03


Total Coliforms


AOAC 991.14


E. Coli


AOAC 991.14




BAM 7.01-7.17




BAM 14.01 - 14.03

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Disclaimer : The information contained herein is accurate to the best knowledge and belief of Pioneer Enterprise, and specification quoted may change without prior notice. Information contained in this technical literature is believed to be accurate and is offered in good faith for the benefit of the customer.
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