Sal Fat

Food Additives

     Food Additives

Sal Fat – Shorea Robusta Fat

Sal fat is greenish brown. It has a typical odour. Its fatty acid composition shows C16 (4%), C18 (47%), C18:1 (44%), C18:2 (0.5%) and C20 (2.8%). These values are mean values of some samples. The presence of small amounts of the C20 acid, however does not affect the performance of the sal fat fractions as cocoa butter substitute. A two stage acetone fractionation process gives a sal mid-fraction (45% yield) that is suitable for use in preparing cocoa butter substitute. It can be concluded that Sal fat, largely free from oxidized fatty acid glycerides contains about 69 per cent symmetrical triglycerides. Fats like illipe, kokum, shea

contain substantial proportion of symmetrical triglycerides and hence are valued as confectionery fats.

SAL FAT as component of Cocoa Butter Equivalent : Cocoa butter has a unique chemical and physical properties which endow chocolates with special aesthetic and universally eating qualities. The important attributes like remaining hard and brittle at 30 Deg.C and yet melting fully and completely at 35 Deg.C, the rapid transformation to most stable polymorphic form which helps in tempering, demoulding, and hardening of bars are due to the unique chemical composition comprising about 80 per cent symmetrical triglycerides that is POP, POSt and StOSt.

Sal oil has been used for centuries as a cooking oil substitute. Sal seeds possess a fat content of 12% to 14%. The fat is extracted in a Solvent Extraction Plant in the presence of hexane. The extracted Sal oil is refined using conventional refining methods. Marked by a greenish-brown tinge and a pungent odour, Sal fat has a fatty acid composition of palmitic acid (4%), Stearic acid (47%), Oleic acid (44%), Linoleic acid (0.5%) and Archidic acid (2.8%). Sal fat has come up as a major constituent of confectionery items. Neutralized and Bleached Sal fat (NB SAL FAT) is mainly used as a component for filling. Sal Fat is also used as an alternative to Cocoa Butter as Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) and Cocoa Butter Replacer (CBR). Sal fat is also used as a substitute for Cocoa Butter as Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS) in confectionery. Apart from its uses in confectionery, Sal Fat is also used as a fat substitute for soap making, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and medicines. Processed Sal fat is used in products such as waxes, polishes, cosmetics, paper coatings and multipurpose greases.

Sal Fat as component of Cocoa Butter Equivalent

Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) has been used as an ingredient in preparing chocolates for a long time as it provides all the qualities that are required for preparation of chocolate. Sal Fat is an important component of CBE. Cocoa butter has unique chemical and physical properties which provide chocolates with special qualities like maintaining hardness and staying brittle at 30oC and melting completely at 35oC. Such a unique and rapid transformation is due to the unique chemical composition comprising about 80 per cent symmetrical triglycerides like POP, POS and SOS. Sal Fat manifests in itself all these properties and is thus an ideal ingredient of CBE.

Specification for NB Sal Fat
Physical Properties
S. No Parameter Limits AOCS Method
1 Appearance White colour Solid
2 Odour Characteristic odour
3 Taste Typical taste
4 Colour (Lovibond 5-1/4 scale) Max 4.0 Red Cc 13b – 45
5 Specific Gravity 0.898 to 0.914 Cc 10b-25
6 Slip Melting Point 33 – 35 deg C Cc 3-25
Jenson Cooling Curve BS: 684:1.13,1991
T max 33.5 º C min
T min 26.0 º C min
T rise 06.5 º C min
Time 60 minutes max
Solid Fat Contents (by NMR) BS: 684:2.22,1991
Tempered at 26ºC for 40 Hours
20 ºC 66% min
25 ºC 63% min
30 ºC 56% min
35 ºC 12% min
7 Moisture & Volaitle Matter 0.5% Max Ca 2c-25
Stearic                         C18:0 50 – 65
Oleic                           C18:1 30 – 44
Linoleic                        C18:2   0 – 8
Aracid                         C20:0   0 – 5
Chemical Properties
S. No Parameter Limits AOCS Method
1 Free Fatty Acid as Oleic 0.5 % max Ca 5a-40
2 Peroxide value (meq / kg) 4.0 Max Ja 8-87
3 Iodine Value 35 – 41 Cd 1c-85
4 Saponification Value 187 – 193 Tl 1a-64
5 Unsaponifable Matter 1.2% Max Ca 6a-40
6 Fatty Acid Composition in %: (Only for Major Components)
Palmitic (C16:0)   2 – 8
Margar (C17:0)   0 – 5
Stearic (C18:0) 45 – 60
Oleic (C18:1) 35 – 50
Linoleic (C18:2)   0 – 8
Aracid (C20:0)   0 – 5
7 Chemical & Pesticides
DDT <0.05 ppm
Malathion <0.01 ppm
Lindane <0.01 ppm
BHC <0.01 ppm
Microbiological Characteristics
S. No Micro-organism Maximum AOCS Method
1 Aerobic Plate Count 1000 cfu per gm AOAC  990.12
2 Yeast & Mold 50 cfu  / gm BAM 19.01-19.03
3 Total Coliforms Negative AOAC 991.14
4 E. Coli Negative AOAC 991.14
5 Salmonella Negative BAM 7.01-7.17
6 C.P.Staphylococcus Negative BAM 14.01 – 14.03

Description & Uses : SAL Fat is one of the most popular butters available in India. Widely used by cosmectic and chocolate companies across the world, this butter is available round the year. SAL butter is totally natural. It is produced by crushing non cultivated Sal Seeds found in the dense forests of central and eastern India.